In each introduction of large-scale technology, there are error situations that only become visible during operation. In such situations, the planning system often does not know what to do, and the simple strategy of muddling through helps only temporarily. Industry 4.0 contains principles that are suitable to deal with such errors.
The use of large-scale technology is always an experiment, even if no one admits it. Because the complexity of such techniques is so high that all possible failures can never be anticipated. Thus, the society becomes a laboratory: for example, Big Data, the Internet of Things or even large automobile factories and power plants are introduced without knowing all consequences. So, why not design the implementation of a new technology in such a way that the findings during its operation satisfy the criteria of an scientific experiment and therefore can be used to improve the machines.
If you want to know more, look at netzwertig.com. We have published an article there that deals with the issue (in German).